A large number of Hong Kong’s 7.4 million inhabitants stay glad for their “Lion Rock Spirit”: an aggregate assurance to better their lives against apparently impossible chances.
Numerous social orders compliment themselves with stories of a basic belief as far as anyone knows in their DNA. The British have their supposed “Barrage Spirit”, a teeth-gritted resolve said to have been shared by individuals during Germany’s serious bombarding effort of World War II. Americans, in the interim, are generally sharp for individual improvement, as guaranteed by the “Pursuit of happiness”.
On the opposite side of the planet, large numbers of Hong Kong’s 7.4 million individuals additionally invest wholeheartedly in a theoretical quality that they guarantee as their own. The “Lion Rock Spirit” – which depicts their aggregate assurance to better their lives against apparently unrealistic chances – is, devotees express, designed in the Asian city.
All things considered, numerous more established Hong Kongers showed up in the small region on China’s southern coast as outcasts with nothing, escaping from disturbance in central area China between the 1930s and ’60s when Hong Kong was as yet a British settlement. It was their versatility and difficult work, they demand, that changed their city into a worldwide monetary focus in only one age.
“We as a whole needed to buckle down in those days,” said Chan, an old man I met external a rambling Hong Kong public lodging home. “In the event that you didn’t, you would go hungry, your kids would be ravenous. Everybody was buckling down for their future.”
“The Lion Rock Spirit was a typical faith in my parent’s age,” said Bryony Hardy-Wong, whose mother and father showed up from China during the 1960s, and who was raised on a comparative lodging bequest. “The greater part of them were coming from humble foundations. What they accepted was to really buckle down, and afterward they could win the chances to ascend the social stepping stool.”
Strong Wong, who functions as an interchanges administrator in the city, refered to the much-praised instance of Li Ka-shing, who showed up with his family during the 1940s, escaping war and living in incredibly humble conditions in their exile. The demise of Li’s dad from tuberculosis implied Li had to leave school at 15, working 16 hours daily in a plastics exchanging organization.
What they accepted was to buckle down, and afterward they could win the chances to scale the social stepping stool
Presently resigned, Li is accepted to be the richest individual in Hong Kong, a go-getting city with a GDP for each capita comparable to that of Germany. Li’s resources, as per Forbes magazine, top US$35bn. “Li Ka-shing is generally a good example for the more established age,” Hardy-Wong said.
A unique authoritative district of China starting around 1997, uneven Hong Kong contains three particular regions: Hong Kong Island; the Kowloon Peninsula, right across the bustling waters of Victoria Harbor; and the to a great extent provincial New Territories that mostly stretch among Kowloon and China legitimate.
Kowloon signifies “nine winged serpents” in Cantonese, signifying a thirteenth Century Chinese head and a parade of eight slopes cutting between the landmass and the New Territories. Lion Rock is one of those slopes, its 495m pinnacle topped by a tremendous and unmistakable stone outcrop that, in outline from Kowloon, truly looks like a squatting lion.
The existences of displaced people from central area China in Hong Kong had forever been intense, however somewhere in the range of 1945 and 1951 – first and foremost with China’s considerate conflict seething and in the long run with the 1949 triumph of Mao Zedong’s Red Army – the city’s populace dramatically multiplied, from around 600,000 to multiple million.
The convergence of such countless frantic individuals into the then-British settlement brought about a serious lodging lack, with many thousands fitting into dilapidated vagrant networks on Kowloon slopes. There they attempted to get by in dirty circumstances, experiencing appetite and unhealthiness, unfortunate sterilization and infection flare-ups, as well as outrageous rivalry for work, low compensation and double-dealing by supervisors.
The vagrant cabins were generally made of disposed of wood and other waste materials, and occupants cooked on open flames. Unintentional blazes, then, at that point, were another danger: on Christmas Day 1953, a fire seethed through Kowloon’s Shek Kip Mei vagrant region, making 53,000 individuals destitute short-term.
The organization acted quickly accordingly, circulating food and different necessities and developing haven homes. An arrangement was made to clear the vagrant regions and an asset was laid out for the development of resettlement structures, precursors of the sponsored public lodging bequests that for a really long time made the Hong Kong government the world’s greatest property manager.
By 1972, an aggressive public lodging program guaranteed that reasonable homes would be made for 1.8 million residents, or around 45% of the whole populace around then. This would be accomplished through the structure of new towns in the New Territories and some skyscraper domains in Kowloon, remembering those for the neighborhoods of Wong Tai Sin, Tsz Wan Shan and Wang Tau Hom that sit straightforwardly underneath Lion Rock.
Beginning in 1974, the hardscrabble existences of the oppressed of this piece of Kowloon were sensationalized in an emotive TV series called Below the Lion Rock, which ran north of five series on government-run channel RTHK.
The series handled the hard socio-political real factors of the changing times – everything from debasement, medications and betting dependence on the battles of ex-cons and the handicapped – with consistent with life characters going from a road seller and a government employee to a columnist and a fire fighter. The button-pushing dramatization reverberated with the oppressed and the working people.
As per Helena Wu, partner teacher of Hong Kong learns at Canada’s University of British Columbia, in her 2020 book The Hangover after the Handover: Places, Things and Cultural Icons in Hong Kong, “it was accounted for in 1974 that just 1% of the neighborhood populace had never watched the show.”
The program turned out to be significantly more well known in 1979, helped by a wistful signature tune – likewise called Below the Lion Rock – sung by much cherished Cantopop singer Roman Tam. The generally interpreted verses, to some degree, read:
In total agreement in quest for our fantasy, All friction put away, With one heart on similar splendid journey, Fearless and bold inside, Hand close by to unimaginable lengths, Rough landscape no reprieve, Side by side we beat ills, As the Hong Kong story we compose.
Be that as it may, while the 1970s tune could now be viewed as the informal song of praise of the city, for a great many people, the Lion Rock Spirit is a 21st-Century peculiarity.
“The melody turned out to be important for the shared perspective of the majority from 2002, when the then monetary secretary Antony Leung refered to the tune’s verses in his spending plan address,” made sense of Dr Maggie Leung, a speaker in Hong Kong learns at Hong Kong University.
She said the city’s economy was gravely battered by the monetary emergency and the Sars pandemic at that point, and in an allure for residents to help his spending plan, “Leung utilized the tune to inspire nostalgic memories of Hong Kong’s financial achievement made by an uncomplaining, perseverant and constant individuals who upheld one another.”
From that point forward, different legislators have utilized the melody at whatever point they have wanted to bring confidence up in Hong Kong. Additionally in 2002, Zhu Rongji, then the chief of China, included Below the Lion Rock verses in a discourse promising financial help for Hong Kong. In 2013, with political discontent progressively foaming locally, the public authority integrated the tune into a “Hong Kong Our Home” people group union mission.
This was maybe most decisively exhibited when political activists climbed the stone to make an intense interest for general testimonial during the favorable to a majority rules system Umbrella Movement fights of 2014; and when huge number of their light conveying companions sanctioned an eye-getting signal from its highest point during the more fierce enemy of government shows that immersed the city in 2019.
This sort of battling against foul play, strength despite inconveniences, is the genuine Lion Rock Spirit
“The hanging of an enormous flag during the Umbrella Movement in 2014… as well as the framing of the sparkling human chain to the top in the 2019 dissent, are proof of the emblematic meaning of Lion Rock,” said Leung.
“We think the soul of Lion Rock isn’t just about cash,” one of the unknown adolescents behind the standard said in video film the gathering shared of the 2014 trick, adding: “This sort of battling against unfairness, strength notwithstanding inconveniences, is the genuine Lion Rock Spirit.”
The emotional development of Hong Kong’s working class in ongoing many years, and the expansion in the quantity of youthful grown-ups who’ve finished advanced education, implies the Lion Rock Spirit has advanced to become a genuinely new thing. “The financial circumstance has changed [and] the 1970s idea of Lion Rock Spirit is not generally material,” said Hardy-Wong.
Notwithstanding – albeit scarcely any youthful grown-ups have presumably seen any of the 15-moment, high contrast early episodes of Below the Lion Rock – one center idea has remained something similar.
Basically, the verses of the Below the Lion Rock topic express that while there will constantly be battles throughout everyday life, individuals of Hong Kong can improve their lives by shoved their disparities to the side and being strong of one another. Everybody is, all things considered, in almost the same situation, that fortitude actually holds for some.
“The regular great callings, for example, specialist and attorney are at this point not the vocations [the more youthful generation] seek after,” said Hardy-Wong. “Consequently, the Lion Rock Spirit is involved something else for social setting now, particularly after the social development in 2019, when individuals had similar qualities, anxious to voice their viewpoints and requests, to take a stab at an equitable and equivalent society.”